Using Ray with TensorFlow¶
This document describes best practices for using Ray with TensorFlow.
To see more involved examples using TensorFlow, take a look at A3C, ResNet, Policy Gradients, and LBFGS.
If you are training a deep network in the distributed setting, you may need to ship your deep network between processes (or machines). For example, you may update your model on one machine and then use that model to compute a gradient on another machine. However, shipping the model is not always straightforward.
For example, a straightforward attempt to pickle a TensorFlow graph gives mixed results. Some examples fail, and some succeed (but produce very large strings). The results are similar with other pickling libraries as well.
Furthermore, creating a TensorFlow graph can take tens of seconds, and so serializing a graph and recreating it in another process will be inefficient. The better solution is to create the same TensorFlow graph on each worker once at the beginning and then to ship only the weights between the workers.
Suppose we have a simple network definition (this one is modified from the TensorFlow documentation).
import tensorflow as tf
import numpy as np
x_data = tf.placeholder(tf.float32, shape=[100])
y_data = tf.placeholder(tf.float32, shape=[100])
w = tf.Variable(tf.random_uniform([1], 1.0, 1.0))
b = tf.Variable(tf.zeros([1]))
y = w * x_data + b
loss = tf.reduce_mean(tf.square(y  y_data))
optimizer = tf.train.GradientDescentOptimizer(0.5)
grads = optimizer.compute_gradients(loss)
train = optimizer.apply_gradients(grads)
init = tf.global_variables_initializer()
sess = tf.Session()
To extract the weights and set the weights, you can use the following helper method.
import ray.experimental.tf_utils
variables = ray.experimental.tf_utils.TensorFlowVariables(loss, sess)
The TensorFlowVariables
object provides methods for getting and setting the
weights as well as collecting all of the variables in the model.
Now we can use these methods to extract the weights, and place them back in the network as follows.
# First initialize the weights.
sess.run(init)
# Get the weights
weights = variables.get_weights() # Returns a dictionary of numpy arrays
# Set the weights
variables.set_weights(weights)
Note: If we were to set the weights using the assign
method like below,
each call to assign
would add a node to the graph, and the graph would grow
unmanageably large over time.
w.assign(np.zeros(1)) # This adds a node to the graph every time you call it.
b.assign(np.zeros(1)) # This adds a node to the graph every time you call it.
Complete Example for Weight Averaging¶
Putting this all together, we would first embed the graph in an actor. Within
the actor, we would use the get_weights
and set_weights
methods of the
TensorFlowVariables
class. We would then use those methods to ship the weights
(as a dictionary of variable names mapping to numpy arrays) between the
processes without shipping the actual TensorFlow graphs, which are much more
complex Python objects.
import tensorflow as tf
import numpy as np
import ray
import ray.experimental.tf_utils
ray.init()
BATCH_SIZE = 100
NUM_BATCHES = 1
NUM_ITERS = 201
class Network(object):
def __init__(self, x, y):
# Seed TensorFlow to make the script deterministic.
tf.set_random_seed(0)
# Define the inputs.
self.x_data = tf.constant(x, dtype=tf.float32)
self.y_data = tf.constant(y, dtype=tf.float32)
# Define the weights and computation.
w = tf.Variable(tf.random_uniform([1], 1.0, 1.0))
b = tf.Variable(tf.zeros([1]))
y = w * self.x_data + b
# Define the loss.
self.loss = tf.reduce_mean(tf.square(y  self.y_data))
optimizer = tf.train.GradientDescentOptimizer(0.5)
self.grads = optimizer.compute_gradients(self.loss)
self.train = optimizer.apply_gradients(self.grads)
# Define the weight initializer and session.
init = tf.global_variables_initializer()
self.sess = tf.Session()
# Additional code for setting and getting the weights
self.variables = ray.experimental.tf_utils.TensorFlowVariables(self.loss, self.sess)
# Return all of the data needed to use the network.
self.sess.run(init)
# Define a remote function that trains the network for one step and returns the
# new weights.
def step(self, weights):
# Set the weights in the network.
self.variables.set_weights(weights)
# Do one step of training.
self.sess.run(self.train)
# Return the new weights.
return self.variables.get_weights()
def get_weights(self):
return self.variables.get_weights()
# Define a remote function for generating fake data.
@ray.remote(num_return_vals=2)
def generate_fake_x_y_data(num_data, seed=0):
# Seed numpy to make the script deterministic.
np.random.seed(seed)
x = np.random.rand(num_data)
y = x * 0.1 + 0.3
return x, y
# Generate some training data.
batch_ids = [generate_fake_x_y_data.remote(BATCH_SIZE, seed=i) for i in range(NUM_BATCHES)]
x_ids = [x_id for x_id, y_id in batch_ids]
y_ids = [y_id for x_id, y_id in batch_ids]
# Generate some test data.
x_test, y_test = ray.get(generate_fake_x_y_data.remote(BATCH_SIZE, seed=NUM_BATCHES))
# Create actors to store the networks.
remote_network = ray.remote(Network)
actor_list = [remote_network.remote(x_ids[i], y_ids[i]) for i in range(NUM_BATCHES)]
# Get initial weights of some actor.
weights = ray.get(actor_list[0].get_weights.remote())
# Do some steps of training.
for iteration in range(NUM_ITERS):
# Put the weights in the object store. This is optional. We could instead pass
# the variable weights directly into step.remote, in which case it would be
# placed in the object store under the hood. However, in that case multiple
# copies of the weights would be put in the object store, so this approach is
# more efficient.
weights_id = ray.put(weights)
# Call the remote function multiple times in parallel.
new_weights_ids = [actor.step.remote(weights_id) for actor in actor_list]
# Get all of the weights.
new_weights_list = ray.get(new_weights_ids)
# Add up all the different weights. Each element of new_weights_list is a dict
# of weights, and we want to add up these dicts component wise using the keys
# of the first dict.
weights = {variable: sum(weight_dict[variable] for weight_dict in new_weights_list) / NUM_BATCHES for variable in new_weights_list[0]}
# Print the current weights. They should converge to roughly to the values 0.1
# and 0.3 used in generate_fake_x_y_data.
if iteration % 20 == 0:
print("Iteration {}: weights are {}".format(iteration, weights))
How to Train in Parallel using Ray and Gradients¶
In some cases, you may want to do dataparallel training on your network. We use the network
above to illustrate how to do this in Ray. The only differences are in the remote function
step
and the driver code.
In the function step
, we run the grad operation rather than the train operation to get the gradients.
Since Tensorflow pairs the gradients with the variables in a tuple, we extract the gradients to avoid
needless computation.
Extracting numerical gradients¶
Code like the following can be used in a remote function to compute numerical gradients.
x_values = [1] * 100
y_values = [2] * 100
numerical_grads = sess.run([grad[0] for grad in grads], feed_dict={x_data: x_values, y_data: y_values})
Using the returned gradients to train the network¶
By pairing the symbolic gradients with the numerical gradients in a feed_dict, we can update the network.
# We can feed the gradient values in using the associated symbolic gradient
# operation defined in tensorflow.
feed_dict = {grad[0]: numerical_grad for (grad, numerical_grad) in zip(grads, numerical_grads)}
sess.run(train, feed_dict=feed_dict)
You can then run variables.get_weights()
to see the updated weights of the network.
For reference, the full code is below:
import tensorflow as tf
import numpy as np
import ray
ray.init()
BATCH_SIZE = 100
NUM_BATCHES = 1
NUM_ITERS = 201
class Network(object):
def __init__(self, x, y):
# Seed TensorFlow to make the script deterministic.
tf.set_random_seed(0)
# Define the inputs.
x_data = tf.constant(x, dtype=tf.float32)
y_data = tf.constant(y, dtype=tf.float32)
# Define the weights and computation.
w = tf.Variable(tf.random_uniform([1], 1.0, 1.0))
b = tf.Variable(tf.zeros([1]))
y = w * x_data + b
# Define the loss.
self.loss = tf.reduce_mean(tf.square(y  y_data))
optimizer = tf.train.GradientDescentOptimizer(0.5)
self.grads = optimizer.compute_gradients(self.loss)
self.train = optimizer.apply_gradients(self.grads)
# Define the weight initializer and session.
init = tf.global_variables_initializer()
self.sess = tf.Session()
# Additional code for setting and getting the weights
self.variables = ray.experimental.tf_utils.TensorFlowVariables(self.loss, self.sess)
# Return all of the data needed to use the network.
self.sess.run(init)
# Define a remote function that trains the network for one step and returns the
# new weights.
def step(self, weights):
# Set the weights in the network.
self.variables.set_weights(weights)
# Do one step of training. We only need the actual gradients so we filter over the list.
actual_grads = self.sess.run([grad[0] for grad in self.grads])
return actual_grads
def get_weights(self):
return self.variables.get_weights()
# Define a remote function for generating fake data.
@ray.remote(num_return_vals=2)
def generate_fake_x_y_data(num_data, seed=0):
# Seed numpy to make the script deterministic.
np.random.seed(seed)
x = np.random.rand(num_data)
y = x * 0.1 + 0.3
return x, y
# Generate some training data.
batch_ids = [generate_fake_x_y_data.remote(BATCH_SIZE, seed=i) for i in range(NUM_BATCHES)]
x_ids = [x_id for x_id, y_id in batch_ids]
y_ids = [y_id for x_id, y_id in batch_ids]
# Generate some test data.
x_test, y_test = ray.get(generate_fake_x_y_data.remote(BATCH_SIZE, seed=NUM_BATCHES))
# Create actors to store the networks.
remote_network = ray.remote(Network)
actor_list = [remote_network.remote(x_ids[i], y_ids[i]) for i in range(NUM_BATCHES)]
local_network = Network(x_test, y_test)
# Get initial weights of local network.
weights = local_network.get_weights()
# Do some steps of training.
for iteration in range(NUM_ITERS):
# Put the weights in the object store. This is optional. We could instead pass
# the variable weights directly into step.remote, in which case it would be
# placed in the object store under the hood. However, in that case multiple
# copies of the weights would be put in the object store, so this approach is
# more efficient.
weights_id = ray.put(weights)
# Call the remote function multiple times in parallel.
gradients_ids = [actor.step.remote(weights_id) for actor in actor_list]
# Get all of the weights.
gradients_list = ray.get(gradients_ids)
# Take the mean of the different gradients. Each element of gradients_list is a list
# of gradients, and we want to take the mean of each one.
mean_grads = [sum([gradients[i] for gradients in gradients_list]) / len(gradients_list) for i in range(len(gradients_list[0]))]
feed_dict = {grad[0]: mean_grad for (grad, mean_grad) in zip(local_network.grads, mean_grads)}
local_network.sess.run(local_network.train, feed_dict=feed_dict)
weights = local_network.get_weights()
# Print the current weights. They should converge to roughly to the values 0.1
# and 0.3 used in generate_fake_x_y_data.
if iteration % 20 == 0:
print("Iteration {}: weights are {}".format(iteration, weights))

class
ray.experimental.tf_utils.
TensorFlowVariables
(output, sess=None, input_variables=None)¶ A class used to set and get weights for Tensorflow networks.

sess
¶ tf.Session – The tensorflow session used to run assignment.

variables
¶ Dict[str, tf.Variable] – Extracted variables from the loss or additional variables that are passed in.

placeholders
¶ Dict[str, tf.placeholders] – Placeholders for weights.

assignment_nodes
¶ Dict[str, tf.Tensor] – Nodes that assign weights.

set_session
(sess)¶ Sets the current session used by the class.
Parameters: sess (tf.Session) – Session to set the attribute with.

get_flat_size
()¶ Returns the total length of all of the flattened variables.
Returns: The length of all flattened variables concatenated.

get_flat
()¶ Gets the weights and returns them as a flat array.
Returns: 1D Array containing the flattened weights.

set_flat
(new_weights)¶ Sets the weights to new_weights, converting from a flat array.
Note
You can only set all weights in the network using this function, i.e., the length of the array must match get_flat_size.
Parameters: new_weights (np.ndarray) – Flat array containing weights.

get_weights
()¶ Returns a dictionary containing the weights of the network.
Returns: Dictionary mapping variable names to their weights.

set_weights
(new_weights)¶ Sets the weights to new_weights.
Note
Can set subsets of variables as well, by only passing in the variables you want to be set.
Parameters: new_weights (Dict) – Dictionary mapping variable names to their weights.

Troubleshooting¶
Note that TensorFlowVariables
uses variable names to determine what
variables to set when calling set_weights
. One common issue arises when two
networks are defined in the same TensorFlow graph. In this case, TensorFlow
appends an underscore and integer to the names of variables to disambiguate
them. This will cause TensorFlowVariables
to fail. For example, if we have a
class definiton Network
with a TensorFlowVariables
instance:
import ray
import tensorflow as tf
class Network(object):
def __init__(self):
a = tf.Variable(1)
b = tf.Variable(1)
c = tf.add(a, b)
sess = tf.Session()
init = tf.global_variables_initializer()
sess.run(init)
self.variables = ray.experimental.tf_utils.TensorFlowVariables(c, sess)
def set_weights(self, weights):
self.variables.set_weights(weights)
def get_weights(self):
return self.variables.get_weights()
and run the following code:
a = Network()
b = Network()
b.set_weights(a.get_weights())
the code would fail. If we instead defined each network in its own TensorFlow graph, then it would work:
with tf.Graph().as_default():
a = Network()
with tf.Graph().as_default():
b = Network()
b.set_weights(a.get_weights())
This issue does not occur between actors that contain a network, as each actor
is in its own process, and thus is in its own graph. This also does not occur
when using set_flat
.
Another issue to keep in mind is that TensorFlowVariables
needs to add new
operations to the graph. If you close the graph and make it immutable, e.g.
creating a MonitoredTrainingSession
the initialization will fail. To resolve
this, simply create the instance before you close the graph.