RLlib Algorithms

High-throughput architectures

Distributed Prioritized Experience Replay (Ape-X)

[paper] [implementation] Ape-X variations of DQN, DDPG, and QMIX (APEX_DQN, APEX_DDPG, APEX_QMIX) use a single GPU learner and many CPU workers for experience collection. Experience collection can scale to hundreds of CPU workers due to the distributed prioritization of experience prior to storage in replay buffers.

_images/apex-arch.svg

Ape-X architecture

Tuned examples: PongNoFrameskip-v4, Pendulum-v0, MountainCarContinuous-v0, {BeamRider,Breakout,Qbert,SpaceInvaders}NoFrameskip-v4.

Atari results @10M steps: more details

Atari env RLlib Ape-X 8-workers Mnih et al Async DQN 16-workers
BeamRider 6134 ~6000
Breakout 123 ~50
Qbert 15302 ~1200
SpaceInvaders 686 ~600

Scalability:

Atari env RLlib Ape-X 8-workers @1 hour Mnih et al Async DQN 16-workers @1 hour
BeamRider 4873 ~1000
Breakout 77 ~10
Qbert 4083 ~500
SpaceInvaders 646 ~300
_images/apex.png

Ape-X using 32 workers in RLlib vs vanilla DQN (orange) and A3C (blue) on PongNoFrameskip-v4.

Ape-X specific configs (see also common configs):

APEX_DEFAULT_CONFIG = merge_dicts(
    DQN_CONFIG,  # see also the options in dqn.py, which are also supported
    {
        "optimizer": merge_dicts(
            DQN_CONFIG["optimizer"], {
                "max_weight_sync_delay": 400,
                "num_replay_buffer_shards": 4,
                "debug": False
            }),
        "n_step": 3,
        "num_gpus": 1,
        "num_workers": 32,
        "buffer_size": 2000000,
        "learning_starts": 50000,
        "train_batch_size": 512,
        "sample_batch_size": 50,
        "target_network_update_freq": 500000,
        "timesteps_per_iteration": 25000,
        "per_worker_exploration": True,
        "worker_side_prioritization": True,
        "min_iter_time_s": 30,
    },
)

Importance Weighted Actor-Learner Architecture (IMPALA)

[paper] [implementation] In IMPALA, a central learner runs SGD in a tight loop while asynchronously pulling sample batches from many actor processes. RLlib’s IMPALA implementation uses DeepMind’s reference V-trace code. Note that we do not provide a deep residual network out of the box, but one can be plugged in as a custom model. Multiple learner GPUs and experience replay are also supported.

_images/impala-arch.svg

IMPALA architecture

Tuned examples: PongNoFrameskip-v4, vectorized configuration, multi-gpu configuration, {BeamRider,Breakout,Qbert,SpaceInvaders}NoFrameskip-v4

Atari results @10M steps: more details

Atari env RLlib IMPALA 32-workers Mnih et al A3C 16-workers
BeamRider 2071 ~3000
Breakout 385 ~150
Qbert 4068 ~1000
SpaceInvaders 719 ~600

Scalability:

Atari env RLlib IMPALA 32-workers @1 hour Mnih et al A3C 16-workers @1 hour
BeamRider 3181 ~1000
Breakout 538 ~10
Qbert 10850 ~500
SpaceInvaders 843 ~300
_images/impala.png

Multi-GPU IMPALA scales up to solve PongNoFrameskip-v4 in ~3 minutes using a pair of V100 GPUs and 128 CPU workers. The maximum training throughput reached is ~30k transitions per second (~120k environment frames per second).

IMPALA-specific configs (see also common configs):

DEFAULT_CONFIG = with_common_config({
    # V-trace params (see vtrace.py).
    "vtrace": True,
    "vtrace_clip_rho_threshold": 1.0,
    "vtrace_clip_pg_rho_threshold": 1.0,

    # System params.
    #
    # == Overview of data flow in IMPALA ==
    # 1. Policy evaluation in parallel across `num_workers` actors produces
    #    batches of size `sample_batch_size * num_envs_per_worker`.
    # 2. If enabled, the replay buffer stores and produces batches of size
    #    `sample_batch_size * num_envs_per_worker`.
    # 3. If enabled, the minibatch ring buffer stores and replays batches of
    #    size `train_batch_size` up to `num_sgd_iter` times per batch.
    # 4. The learner thread executes data parallel SGD across `num_gpus` GPUs
    #    on batches of size `train_batch_size`.
    #
    "sample_batch_size": 50,
    "train_batch_size": 500,
    "min_iter_time_s": 10,
    "num_workers": 2,
    # number of GPUs the learner should use.
    "num_gpus": 1,
    # set >1 to load data into GPUs in parallel. Increases GPU memory usage
    # proportionally with the number of buffers.
    "num_data_loader_buffers": 1,
    # how many train batches should be retained for minibatching. This conf
    # only has an effect if `num_sgd_iter > 1`.
    "minibatch_buffer_size": 1,
    # number of passes to make over each train batch
    "num_sgd_iter": 1,
    # set >0 to enable experience replay. Saved samples will be replayed with
    # a p:1 proportion to new data samples.
    "replay_proportion": 0.0,
    # number of sample batches to store for replay. The number of transitions
    # saved total will be (replay_buffer_num_slots * sample_batch_size).
    "replay_buffer_num_slots": 0,
    # max queue size for train batches feeding into the learner
    "learner_queue_size": 16,
    # wait for train batches to be available in minibatch buffer queue
    # this many seconds. This may need to be increased e.g. when training
    # with a slow environment
    "learner_queue_timeout": 300,
    # level of queuing for sampling.
    "max_sample_requests_in_flight_per_worker": 2,
    # max number of workers to broadcast one set of weights to
    "broadcast_interval": 1,
    # use intermediate actors for multi-level aggregation. This can make sense
    # if ingesting >2GB/s of samples, or if the data requires decompression.
    "num_aggregation_workers": 0,

    # Learning params.
    "grad_clip": 40.0,
    # either "adam" or "rmsprop"
    "opt_type": "adam",
    "lr": 0.0005,
    "lr_schedule": None,
    # rmsprop considered
    "decay": 0.99,
    "momentum": 0.0,
    "epsilon": 0.1,
    # balancing the three losses
    "vf_loss_coeff": 0.5,
    "entropy_coeff": 0.01,
    "entropy_coeff_schedule": None,

    # use fake (infinite speed) sampler for testing
    "_fake_sampler": False,
})

Asynchronous Proximal Policy Optimization (APPO)

[paper] [implementation] We include an asynchronous variant of Proximal Policy Optimization (PPO) based on the IMPALA architecture. This is similar to IMPALA but using a surrogate policy loss with clipping. Compared to synchronous PPO, APPO is more efficient in wall-clock time due to its use of asynchronous sampling. Using a clipped loss also allows for multiple SGD passes, and therefore the potential for better sample efficiency compared to IMPALA. V-trace can also be enabled to correct for off-policy samples.

APPO is not always more efficient; it is often better to simply use PPO or IMPALA.

_images/impala-arch.svg

APPO architecture (same as IMPALA)

Tuned examples: PongNoFrameskip-v4

APPO-specific configs (see also common configs):

DEFAULT_CONFIG = with_base_config(impala.DEFAULT_CONFIG, {
    # Whether to use V-trace weighted advantages. If false, PPO GAE advantages
    # will be used instead.
    "vtrace": False,

    # == These two options only apply if vtrace: False ==
    # If true, use the Generalized Advantage Estimator (GAE)
    # with a value function, see https://arxiv.org/pdf/1506.02438.pdf.
    "use_gae": True,
    # GAE(lambda) parameter
    "lambda": 1.0,

    # == PPO surrogate loss options ==
    "clip_param": 0.4,

    # == PPO KL Loss options ==
    "use_kl_loss": False,
    "kl_coeff": 1.0,
    "kl_target": 0.01,

    # == IMPALA optimizer params (see documentation in impala.py) ==
    "sample_batch_size": 50,
    "train_batch_size": 500,
    "min_iter_time_s": 10,
    "num_workers": 2,
    "num_gpus": 0,
    "num_data_loader_buffers": 1,
    "minibatch_buffer_size": 1,
    "num_sgd_iter": 1,
    "replay_proportion": 0.0,
    "replay_buffer_num_slots": 100,
    "learner_queue_size": 16,
    "learner_queue_timeout": 300,
    "max_sample_requests_in_flight_per_worker": 2,
    "broadcast_interval": 1,
    "grad_clip": 40.0,
    "opt_type": "adam",
    "lr": 0.0005,
    "lr_schedule": None,
    "decay": 0.99,
    "momentum": 0.0,
    "epsilon": 0.1,
    "vf_loss_coeff": 0.5,
    "entropy_coeff": 0.01,
    "entropy_coeff_schedule": None,
})

Gradient-based

Advantage Actor-Critic (A2C, A3C)

[paper] [implementation] RLlib implements A2C and A3C using SyncSamplesOptimizer and AsyncGradientsOptimizer respectively for policy optimization. These algorithms scale to up to 16-32 worker processes depending on the environment. Both a TensorFlow (LSTM), and PyTorch version are available.

A2C also supports microbatching (i.e., gradient accumulation), which can be enabled by setting the microbatch_size config. Microbatching allows for training with a train_batch_size much larger than GPU memory. See also the microbatch optimizer implementation.

_images/a2c-arch.svg

A2C architecture

Tuned examples: PongDeterministic-v4, PyTorch version, {BeamRider,Breakout,Qbert,SpaceInvaders}NoFrameskip-v4

Tip

Consider using IMPALA for faster training with similar timestep efficiency.

Atari results @10M steps: more details

Atari env RLlib A2C 5-workers Mnih et al A3C 16-workers
BeamRider 1401 ~3000
Breakout 374 ~150
Qbert 3620 ~1000
SpaceInvaders 692 ~600

A3C-specific configs (see also common configs):

DEFAULT_CONFIG = with_common_config({
    # Size of rollout batch
    "sample_batch_size": 10,
    # Use PyTorch as backend - no LSTM support
    "use_pytorch": False,
    # GAE(gamma) parameter
    "lambda": 1.0,
    # Max global norm for each gradient calculated by worker
    "grad_clip": 40.0,
    # Learning rate
    "lr": 0.0001,
    # Learning rate schedule
    "lr_schedule": None,
    # Value Function Loss coefficient
    "vf_loss_coeff": 0.5,
    # Entropy coefficient
    "entropy_coeff": 0.01,
    # Min time per iteration
    "min_iter_time_s": 5,
    # Workers sample async. Note that this increases the effective
    # sample_batch_size by up to 5x due to async buffering of batches.
    "sample_async": True,
})

Deep Deterministic Policy Gradients (DDPG, TD3)

[paper] [implementation] DDPG is implemented similarly to DQN (below). The algorithm can be scaled by increasing the number of workers, switching to AsyncGradientsOptimizer, or using Ape-X. The improvements from TD3 are available as TD3.

_images/dqn-arch.svg

DDPG architecture (same as DQN)

Tuned examples: Pendulum-v0, MountainCarContinuous-v0, HalfCheetah-v2, TD3 Pendulum-v0, TD3 InvertedPendulum-v2, TD3 Mujoco suite (Ant-v2, HalfCheetah-v2, Hopper-v2, Walker2d-v2).

DDPG-specific configs (see also common configs):

DEFAULT_CONFIG = with_common_config({
    # === Twin Delayed DDPG (TD3) and Soft Actor-Critic (SAC) tricks ===
    # TD3: https://spinningup.openai.com/en/latest/algorithms/td3.html
    # In addition to settings below, you can use "exploration_noise_type" and
    # "exploration_gauss_act_noise" to get IID Gaussian exploration noise
    # instead of OU exploration noise.
    # twin Q-net
    "twin_q": False,
    # delayed policy update
    "policy_delay": 1,
    # target policy smoothing
    # (this also replaces OU exploration noise with IID Gaussian exploration
    # noise, for now)
    "smooth_target_policy": False,
    # gaussian stddev of target action noise for smoothing
    "target_noise": 0.2,
    # target noise limit (bound)
    "target_noise_clip": 0.5,

    # === Evaluation ===
    # Evaluate with epsilon=0 every `evaluation_interval` training iterations.
    # The evaluation stats will be reported under the "evaluation" metric key.
    # Note that evaluation is currently not parallelized, and that for Ape-X
    # metrics are already only reported for the lowest epsilon workers.
    "evaluation_interval": None,
    # Number of episodes to run per evaluation period.
    "evaluation_num_episodes": 10,

    # === Model ===
    # Apply a state preprocessor with spec given by the "model" config option
    # (like other RL algorithms). This is mostly useful if you have a weird
    # observation shape, like an image. Disabled by default.
    "use_state_preprocessor": False,
    # Postprocess the policy network model output with these hidden layers. If
    # use_state_preprocessor is False, then these will be the *only* hidden
    # layers in the network.
    "actor_hiddens": [400, 300],
    # Hidden layers activation of the postprocessing stage of the policy
    # network
    "actor_hidden_activation": "relu",
    # Postprocess the critic network model output with these hidden layers;
    # again, if use_state_preprocessor is True, then the state will be
    # preprocessed by the model specified with the "model" config option first.
    "critic_hiddens": [400, 300],
    # Hidden layers activation of the postprocessing state of the critic.
    "critic_hidden_activation": "relu",
    # N-step Q learning
    "n_step": 1,

    # === Exploration ===
    # Turns on annealing schedule for exploration noise. Exploration is
    # annealed from 1.0 to exploration_final_eps over schedule_max_timesteps
    # scaled by exploration_fraction. Original DDPG and TD3 papers do not
    # anneal noise, so this is False by default.
    "exploration_should_anneal": False,
    # Max num timesteps for annealing schedules.
    "schedule_max_timesteps": 100000,
    # Number of env steps to optimize for before returning
    "timesteps_per_iteration": 1000,
    # Fraction of entire training period over which the exploration rate is
    # annealed
    "exploration_fraction": 0.1,
    # Final scaling multiplier for action noise (initial is 1.0)
    "exploration_final_scale": 0.02,
    # valid values: "ou" (time-correlated, like original DDPG paper),
    # "gaussian" (IID, like TD3 paper)
    "exploration_noise_type": "ou",
    # OU-noise scale; this can be used to scale down magnitude of OU noise
    # before adding to actions (requires "exploration_noise_type" to be "ou")
    "exploration_ou_noise_scale": 0.1,
    # theta for OU
    "exploration_ou_theta": 0.15,
    # sigma for OU
    "exploration_ou_sigma": 0.2,
    # gaussian stddev of act noise for exploration (requires
    # "exploration_noise_type" to be "gaussian")
    "exploration_gaussian_sigma": 0.1,
    # If True parameter space noise will be used for exploration
    # See https://blog.openai.com/better-exploration-with-parameter-noise/
    "parameter_noise": False,
    # Until this many timesteps have elapsed, the agent's policy will be
    # ignored & it will instead take uniform random actions. Can be used in
    # conjunction with learning_starts (which controls when the first
    # optimization step happens) to decrease dependence of exploration &
    # optimization on initial policy parameters. Note that this will be
    # disabled when the action noise scale is set to 0 (e.g during evaluation).
    "pure_exploration_steps": 1000,
    # Extra configuration that disables exploration.
    "evaluation_config": {
        "exploration_fraction": 0,
        "exploration_final_eps": 0,
    },

    # === Replay buffer ===
    # Size of the replay buffer. Note that if async_updates is set, then
    # each worker will have a replay buffer of this size.
    "buffer_size": 50000,
    # If True prioritized replay buffer will be used.
    "prioritized_replay": True,
    # Alpha parameter for prioritized replay buffer.
    "prioritized_replay_alpha": 0.6,
    # Beta parameter for sampling from prioritized replay buffer.
    "prioritized_replay_beta": 0.4,
    # Fraction of entire training period over which the beta parameter is
    # annealed
    "beta_annealing_fraction": 0.2,
    # Final value of beta
    "final_prioritized_replay_beta": 0.4,
    # Epsilon to add to the TD errors when updating priorities.
    "prioritized_replay_eps": 1e-6,
    # Whether to LZ4 compress observations
    "compress_observations": False,

    # === Optimization ===
    # Learning rate for the critic (Q-function) optimizer.
    "critic_lr": 1e-3,
    # Learning rate for the actor (policy) optimizer.
    "actor_lr": 1e-3,
    # Update the target network every `target_network_update_freq` steps.
    "target_network_update_freq": 0,
    # Update the target by \tau * policy + (1-\tau) * target_policy
    "tau": 0.002,
    # If True, use huber loss instead of squared loss for critic network
    # Conventionally, no need to clip gradients if using a huber loss
    "use_huber": False,
    # Threshold of a huber loss
    "huber_threshold": 1.0,
    # Weights for L2 regularization
    "l2_reg": 1e-6,
    # If not None, clip gradients during optimization at this value
    "grad_norm_clipping": None,
    # How many steps of the model to sample before learning starts.
    "learning_starts": 1500,
    # Update the replay buffer with this many samples at once. Note that this
    # setting applies per-worker if num_workers > 1.
    "sample_batch_size": 1,
    # Size of a batched sampled from replay buffer for training. Note that
    # if async_updates is set, then each worker returns gradients for a
    # batch of this size.
    "train_batch_size": 256,

    # === Parallelism ===
    # Number of workers for collecting samples with. This only makes sense
    # to increase if your environment is particularly slow to sample, or if
    # you're using the Async or Ape-X optimizers.
    "num_workers": 0,
    # Whether to use a distribution of epsilons across workers for exploration.
    "per_worker_exploration": False,
    # Whether to compute priorities on workers.
    "worker_side_prioritization": False,
    # Prevent iterations from going lower than this time span
    "min_iter_time_s": 1,
})

Deep Q Networks (DQN, Rainbow, Parametric DQN)

[paper] [implementation] RLlib DQN is implemented using the SyncReplayOptimizer. The algorithm can be scaled by increasing the number of workers, using the AsyncGradientsOptimizer for async DQN, or using Ape-X. Memory usage is reduced by compressing samples in the replay buffer with LZ4. All of the DQN improvements evaluated in Rainbow are available, though not all are enabled by default. See also how to use parametric-actions in DQN.

_images/dqn-arch.svg

DQN architecture

Tuned examples: PongDeterministic-v4, Rainbow configuration, {BeamRider,Breakout,Qbert,SpaceInvaders}NoFrameskip-v4, with Dueling and Double-Q, with Distributional DQN.

Tip

Consider using Ape-X for faster training with similar timestep efficiency.

Atari results @10M steps: more details

Atari env RLlib DQN RLlib Dueling DDQN RLlib Dist. DQN Hessel et al. DQN
BeamRider 2869 1910 4447 ~2000
Breakout 287 312 410 ~150
Qbert 3921 7968 15780 ~4000
SpaceInvaders 650 1001 1025 ~500

DQN-specific configs (see also common configs):

DEFAULT_CONFIG = with_common_config({
    # === Model ===
    # Number of atoms for representing the distribution of return. When
    # this is greater than 1, distributional Q-learning is used.
    # the discrete supports are bounded by v_min and v_max
    "num_atoms": 1,
    "v_min": -10.0,
    "v_max": 10.0,
    # Whether to use noisy network
    "noisy": False,
    # control the initial value of noisy nets
    "sigma0": 0.5,
    # Whether to use dueling dqn
    "dueling": True,
    # Whether to use double dqn
    "double_q": True,
    # Postprocess model outputs with these hidden layers to compute the
    # state and action values. See also the model config in catalog.py.
    "hiddens": [256],
    # N-step Q learning
    "n_step": 1,

    # === Exploration ===
    # Max num timesteps for annealing schedules. Exploration is annealed from
    # 1.0 to exploration_fraction over this number of timesteps scaled by
    # exploration_fraction
    "schedule_max_timesteps": 100000,
    # Minimum env steps to optimize for per train call. This value does
    # not affect learning, only the length of iterations.
    "timesteps_per_iteration": 1000,
    # Fraction of entire training period over which the exploration rate is
    # annealed
    "exploration_fraction": 0.1,
    # Final value of random action probability
    "exploration_final_eps": 0.02,
    # Update the target network every `target_network_update_freq` steps.
    "target_network_update_freq": 500,
    # Use softmax for sampling actions. Required for off policy estimation.
    "soft_q": False,
    # Softmax temperature. Q values are divided by this value prior to softmax.
    # Softmax approaches argmax as the temperature drops to zero.
    "softmax_temp": 1.0,
    # If True parameter space noise will be used for exploration
    # See https://blog.openai.com/better-exploration-with-parameter-noise/
    "parameter_noise": False,
    # Extra configuration that disables exploration.
    "evaluation_config": {
        "exploration_fraction": 0,
        "exploration_final_eps": 0,
    },

    # === Replay buffer ===
    # Size of the replay buffer. Note that if async_updates is set, then
    # each worker will have a replay buffer of this size.
    "buffer_size": 50000,
    # If True prioritized replay buffer will be used.
    "prioritized_replay": True,
    # Alpha parameter for prioritized replay buffer.
    "prioritized_replay_alpha": 0.6,
    # Beta parameter for sampling from prioritized replay buffer.
    "prioritized_replay_beta": 0.4,
    # Fraction of entire training period over which the beta parameter is
    # annealed
    "beta_annealing_fraction": 0.2,
    # Final value of beta
    "final_prioritized_replay_beta": 0.4,
    # Epsilon to add to the TD errors when updating priorities.
    "prioritized_replay_eps": 1e-6,
    # Whether to LZ4 compress observations
    "compress_observations": True,

    # === Optimization ===
    # Learning rate for adam optimizer
    "lr": 5e-4,
    # Learning rate schedule
    "lr_schedule": None,
    # Adam epsilon hyper parameter
    "adam_epsilon": 1e-8,
    # If not None, clip gradients during optimization at this value
    "grad_norm_clipping": 40,
    # How many steps of the model to sample before learning starts.
    "learning_starts": 1000,
    # Update the replay buffer with this many samples at once. Note that
    # this setting applies per-worker if num_workers > 1.
    "sample_batch_size": 4,
    # Size of a batched sampled from replay buffer for training. Note that
    # if async_updates is set, then each worker returns gradients for a
    # batch of this size.
    "train_batch_size": 32,

    # === Parallelism ===
    # Number of workers for collecting samples with. This only makes sense
    # to increase if your environment is particularly slow to sample, or if
    # you"re using the Async or Ape-X optimizers.
    "num_workers": 0,
    # Whether to use a distribution of epsilons across workers for exploration.
    "per_worker_exploration": False,
    # Whether to compute priorities on workers.
    "worker_side_prioritization": False,
    # Prevent iterations from going lower than this time span
    "min_iter_time_s": 1,
})

Policy Gradients

[paper] [implementation] We include a vanilla policy gradients implementation as an example algorithm in both TensorFlow and PyTorch. This is usually outperformed by PPO.

_images/a2c-arch.svg

Policy gradients architecture (same as A2C)

Tuned examples: CartPole-v0

PG-specific configs (see also common configs):

DEFAULT_CONFIG = with_common_config({
    # No remote workers by default
    "num_workers": 0,
    # Learning rate
    "lr": 0.0004,
    # Use PyTorch as backend
    "use_pytorch": False,
})

Proximal Policy Optimization (PPO)

[paper] [implementation] PPO’s clipped objective supports multiple SGD passes over the same batch of experiences. RLlib’s multi-GPU optimizer pins that data in GPU memory to avoid unnecessary transfers from host memory, substantially improving performance over a naive implementation. RLlib’s PPO scales out using multiple workers for experience collection, and also with multiple GPUs for SGD.

_images/ppo-arch.svg

PPO architecture

Tuned examples: Humanoid-v1, Hopper-v1, Pendulum-v0, PongDeterministic-v4, Walker2d-v1, HalfCheetah-v2, {BeamRider,Breakout,Qbert,SpaceInvaders}NoFrameskip-v4

Atari results: more details

Atari env RLlib PPO @10M RLlib PPO @25M Baselines PPO @10M
BeamRider 2807 4480 ~1800
Breakout 104 201 ~250
Qbert 11085 14247 ~14000
SpaceInvaders 671 944 ~800

Scalability: more details

MuJoCo env RLlib PPO 16-workers @ 1h Fan et al PPO 16-workers @ 1h
HalfCheetah 9664 ~7700
_images/ppo.png

RLlib’s multi-GPU PPO scales to multiple GPUs and hundreds of CPUs on solving the Humanoid-v1 task. Here we compare against a reference MPI-based implementation.

PPO-specific configs (see also common configs):

DEFAULT_CONFIG = with_common_config({
    # If true, use the Generalized Advantage Estimator (GAE)
    # with a value function, see https://arxiv.org/pdf/1506.02438.pdf.
    "use_gae": True,
    # The GAE(lambda) parameter.
    "lambda": 1.0,
    # Initial coefficient for KL divergence.
    "kl_coeff": 0.2,
    # Size of batches collected from each worker.
    "sample_batch_size": 200,
    # Number of timesteps collected for each SGD round. This defines the size
    # of each SGD epoch.
    "train_batch_size": 4000,
    # Total SGD batch size across all devices for SGD. This defines the
    # minibatch size within each epoch.
    "sgd_minibatch_size": 128,
    # Whether to shuffle sequences in the batch when training (recommended).
    "shuffle_sequences": True,
    # Number of SGD iterations in each outer loop (i.e., number of epochs to
    # execute per train batch).
    "num_sgd_iter": 30,
    # Stepsize of SGD.
    "lr": 5e-5,
    # Learning rate schedule.
    "lr_schedule": None,
    # Share layers for value function. If you set this to True, it's important
    # to tune vf_loss_coeff.
    "vf_share_layers": False,
    # Coefficient of the value function loss. IMPORTANT: you must tune this if
    # you set vf_share_layers: True.
    "vf_loss_coeff": 1.0,
    # Coefficient of the entropy regularizer.
    "entropy_coeff": 0.0,
    # Decay schedule for the entropy regularizer.
    "entropy_coeff_schedule": None,
    # PPO clip parameter.
    "clip_param": 0.3,
    # Clip param for the value function. Note that this is sensitive to the
    # scale of the rewards. If your expected V is large, increase this.
    "vf_clip_param": 10.0,
    # If specified, clip the global norm of gradients by this amount.
    "grad_clip": None,
    # Target value for KL divergence.
    "kl_target": 0.01,
    # Whether to rollout "complete_episodes" or "truncate_episodes".
    "batch_mode": "truncate_episodes",
    # Which observation filter to apply to the observation.
    "observation_filter": "NoFilter",
    # Uses the sync samples optimizer instead of the multi-gpu one. This is
    # usually slower, but you might want to try it if you run into issues with
    # the default optimizer.
    "simple_optimizer": False,
})

Soft Actor Critic (SAC)

[paper] [implementation]

_images/dqn-arch.svg

SAC architecture (same as DQN)

RLlib’s soft-actor critic implementation is ported from the official SAC repo to better integrate with RLlib APIs. Note that SAC has two fields to configure for custom models: policy_model and Q_model, and currently has no support for non-continuous action distributions. It is also currently experimental.

Tuned examples: Pendulum-v0

SAC-specific configs (see also common configs):

DEFAULT_CONFIG = with_common_config({
    # === Model ===
    "twin_q": True,
    "use_state_preprocessor": False,
    "policy": "GaussianLatentSpacePolicy",
    # RLlib model options for the Q function
    "Q_model": {
        "hidden_activation": "relu",
        "hidden_layer_sizes": (256, 256),
    },
    # RLlib model options for the policy function
    "policy_model": {
        "hidden_activation": "relu",
        "hidden_layer_sizes": (256, 256),
    },

    # === Learning ===
    # Update the target by \tau * policy + (1-\tau) * target_policy
    "tau": 5e-3,
    # Target entropy lower bound. This is the inverse of reward scale,
    # and will be optimized automatically.
    "target_entropy": "auto",
    # Disable setting done=True at end of episode.
    "no_done_at_end": True,
    # N-step target updates
    "n_step": 1,

    # === Evaluation ===
    # The evaluation stats will be reported under the "evaluation" metric key.
    "evaluation_interval": 1,
    # Number of episodes to run per evaluation period.
    "evaluation_num_episodes": 1,
    # Extra configuration that disables exploration.
    "evaluation_config": {
        "exploration_enabled": False,
    },

    # === Exploration ===
    # Number of env steps to optimize for before returning
    "timesteps_per_iteration": 100,
    "exploration_enabled": True,

    # === Replay buffer ===
    # Size of the replay buffer. Note that if async_updates is set, then
    # each worker will have a replay buffer of this size.
    "buffer_size": int(1e6),
    # If True prioritized replay buffer will be used.
    # TODO(hartikainen): Make sure this works or remove the option.
    "prioritized_replay": False,
    "prioritized_replay_alpha": 0.6,
    "prioritized_replay_beta": 0.4,
    "prioritized_replay_eps": 1e-6,
    "beta_annealing_fraction": 0.2,
    "final_prioritized_replay_beta": 0.4,
    "compress_observations": False,

    # === Optimization ===
    "optimization": {
        "actor_learning_rate": 3e-4,
        "critic_learning_rate": 3e-4,
        "entropy_learning_rate": 3e-4,
    },
    # If not None, clip gradients during optimization at this value
    "grad_norm_clipping": None,
    # How many steps of the model to sample before learning starts.
    "learning_starts": 1500,
    # Update the replay buffer with this many samples at once. Note that this
    # setting applies per-worker if num_workers > 1.
    "sample_batch_size": 1,
    # Size of a batched sampled from replay buffer for training. Note that
    # if async_updates is set, then each worker returns gradients for a
    # batch of this size.
    "train_batch_size": 256,
    # Update the target network every `target_network_update_freq` steps.
    "target_network_update_freq": 0,

    # === Parallelism ===
    # Whether to use a GPU for local optimization.
    "num_gpus": 0,
    # Number of workers for collecting samples with. This only makes sense
    # to increase if your environment is particularly slow to sample, or if
    # you"re using the Async or Ape-X optimizers.
    "num_workers": 0,
    # Whether to allocate GPUs for workers (if > 0).
    "num_gpus_per_worker": 0,
    # Whether to allocate CPUs for workers (if > 0).
    "num_cpus_per_worker": 1,
    # Whether to compute priorities on workers.
    "worker_side_prioritization": False,
    # Prevent iterations from going lower than this time span
    "min_iter_time_s": 1,

    # TODO(ekl) these are unused; remove them from sac config
    "per_worker_exploration": False,
    "exploration_fraction": 0.1,
    "schedule_max_timesteps": 100000,
    "exploration_final_eps": 0.02,
})

Derivative-free

Augmented Random Search (ARS)

[paper] [implementation] ARS is a random search method for training linear policies for continuous control problems. Code here is adapted from https://github.com/modestyachts/ARS to integrate with RLlib APIs.

Tuned examples: CartPole-v0, Swimmer-v2

ARS-specific configs (see also common configs):

DEFAULT_CONFIG = with_common_config({
    "noise_stdev": 0.02,  # std deviation of parameter noise
    "num_rollouts": 32,  # number of perturbs to try
    "rollouts_used": 32,  # number of perturbs to keep in gradient estimate
    "num_workers": 2,
    "sgd_stepsize": 0.01,  # sgd step-size
    "observation_filter": "MeanStdFilter",
    "noise_size": 250000000,
    "eval_prob": 0.03,  # probability of evaluating the parameter rewards
    "report_length": 10,  # how many of the last rewards we average over
    "offset": 0,
})

Evolution Strategies

[paper] [implementation] Code here is adapted from https://github.com/openai/evolution-strategies-starter to execute in the distributed setting with Ray.

Tuned examples: Humanoid-v1

Scalability:

_images/es.png

RLlib’s ES implementation scales further and is faster than a reference Redis implementation on solving the Humanoid-v1 task.

ES-specific configs (see also common configs):

DEFAULT_CONFIG = with_common_config({
    "l2_coeff": 0.005,
    "noise_stdev": 0.02,
    "episodes_per_batch": 1000,
    "train_batch_size": 10000,
    "eval_prob": 0.003,
    "return_proc_mode": "centered_rank",
    "num_workers": 10,
    "stepsize": 0.01,
    "observation_filter": "MeanStdFilter",
    "noise_size": 250000000,
    "report_length": 10,
})

QMIX Monotonic Value Factorisation (QMIX, VDN, IQN)

[paper] [implementation] Q-Mix is a specialized multi-agent algorithm. Code here is adapted from https://github.com/oxwhirl/pymarl_alpha to integrate with RLlib multi-agent APIs. To use Q-Mix, you must specify an agent grouping in the environment (see the two-step game example). Currently, all agents in the group must be homogeneous. The algorithm can be scaled by increasing the number of workers or using Ape-X.

Q-Mix is implemented in PyTorch and is currently experimental.

Tuned examples: Two-step game

QMIX-specific configs (see also common configs):

DEFAULT_CONFIG = with_common_config({
    # === QMix ===
    # Mixing network. Either "qmix", "vdn", or None
    "mixer": "qmix",
    # Size of the mixing network embedding
    "mixing_embed_dim": 32,
    # Whether to use Double_Q learning
    "double_q": True,
    # Optimize over complete episodes by default.
    "batch_mode": "complete_episodes",

    # === Evaluation ===
    # Evaluate with epsilon=0 every `evaluation_interval` training iterations.
    # The evaluation stats will be reported under the "evaluation" metric key.
    # Note that evaluation is currently not parallelized, and that for Ape-X
    # metrics are already only reported for the lowest epsilon workers.
    "evaluation_interval": None,
    # Number of episodes to run per evaluation period.
    "evaluation_num_episodes": 10,

    # === Exploration ===
    # Max num timesteps for annealing schedules. Exploration is annealed from
    # 1.0 to exploration_fraction over this number of timesteps scaled by
    # exploration_fraction
    "schedule_max_timesteps": 100000,
    # Number of env steps to optimize for before returning
    "timesteps_per_iteration": 1000,
    # Fraction of entire training period over which the exploration rate is
    # annealed
    "exploration_fraction": 0.1,
    # Final value of random action probability
    "exploration_final_eps": 0.02,
    # Update the target network every `target_network_update_freq` steps.
    "target_network_update_freq": 500,

    # === Replay buffer ===
    # Size of the replay buffer in steps.
    "buffer_size": 10000,

    # === Optimization ===
    # Learning rate for RMSProp optimizer
    "lr": 0.0005,
    # RMSProp alpha
    "optim_alpha": 0.99,
    # RMSProp epsilon
    "optim_eps": 0.00001,
    # If not None, clip gradients during optimization at this value
    "grad_norm_clipping": 10,
    # How many steps of the model to sample before learning starts.
    "learning_starts": 1000,
    # Update the replay buffer with this many samples at once. Note that
    # this setting applies per-worker if num_workers > 1.
    "sample_batch_size": 4,
    # Size of a batched sampled from replay buffer for training. Note that
    # if async_updates is set, then each worker returns gradients for a
    # batch of this size.
    "train_batch_size": 32,

    # === Parallelism ===
    # Number of workers for collecting samples with. This only makes sense
    # to increase if your environment is particularly slow to sample, or if
    # you"re using the Async or Ape-X optimizers.
    "num_workers": 0,
    # Whether to use a distribution of epsilons across workers for exploration.
    "per_worker_exploration": False,
    # Whether to compute priorities on workers.
    "worker_side_prioritization": False,
    # Prevent iterations from going lower than this time span
    "min_iter_time_s": 1,

    # === Model ===
    "model": {
        "lstm_cell_size": 64,
        "max_seq_len": 999999,
    },
})

Multi-Agent Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient (contrib/MADDPG)

[paper] [implementation] MADDPG is a specialized multi-agent algorithm. Code here is adapted from https://github.com/openai/maddpg to integrate with RLlib multi-agent APIs. Please check wsjeon/maddpg-rllib for examples and more information.

MADDPG-specific configs (see also common configs):

Tuned examples: Multi-Agent Particle Environment, Two-step game

DEFAULT_CONFIG = with_common_config({
    # === Settings for each individual policy ===
    # ID of the agent controlled by this policy
    "agent_id": None,
    # Use a local critic for this policy.
    "use_local_critic": False,

    # === Evaluation ===
    # Evaluation interval
    "evaluation_interval": None,
    # Number of episodes to run per evaluation period.
    "evaluation_num_episodes": 10,

    # === Model ===
    # Apply a state preprocessor with spec given by the "model" config option
    # (like other RL algorithms). This is mostly useful if you have a weird
    # observation shape, like an image. Disabled by default.
    "use_state_preprocessor": False,
    # Postprocess the policy network model output with these hidden layers. If
    # use_state_preprocessor is False, then these will be the *only* hidden
    # layers in the network.
    "actor_hiddens": [64, 64],
    # Hidden layers activation of the postprocessing stage of the policy
    # network
    "actor_hidden_activation": "relu",
    # Postprocess the critic network model output with these hidden layers;
    # again, if use_state_preprocessor is True, then the state will be
    # preprocessed by the model specified with the "model" config option first.
    "critic_hiddens": [64, 64],
    # Hidden layers activation of the postprocessing state of the critic.
    "critic_hidden_activation": "relu",
    # N-step Q learning
    "n_step": 1,
    # Algorithm for good policies
    "good_policy": "maddpg",
    # Algorithm for adversary policies
    "adv_policy": "maddpg",

    # === Replay buffer ===
    # Size of the replay buffer. Note that if async_updates is set, then
    # each worker will have a replay buffer of this size.
    "buffer_size": int(1e6),
    # Observation compression. Note that compression makes simulation slow in
    # MPE.
    "compress_observations": False,

    # === Optimization ===
    # Learning rate for the critic (Q-function) optimizer.
    "critic_lr": 1e-2,
    # Learning rate for the actor (policy) optimizer.
    "actor_lr": 1e-2,
    # Update the target network every `target_network_update_freq` steps.
    "target_network_update_freq": 0,
    # Update the target by \tau * policy + (1-\tau) * target_policy
    "tau": 0.01,
    # Weights for feature regularization for the actor
    "actor_feature_reg": 0.001,
    # If not None, clip gradients during optimization at this value
    "grad_norm_clipping": 0.5,
    # How many steps of the model to sample before learning starts.
    "learning_starts": 1024 * 25,
    # Update the replay buffer with this many samples at once. Note that this
    # setting applies per-worker if num_workers > 1.
    "sample_batch_size": 100,
    # Size of a batched sampled from replay buffer for training. Note that
    # if async_updates is set, then each worker returns gradients for a
    # batch of this size.
    "train_batch_size": 1024,
    # Number of env steps to optimize for before returning
    "timesteps_per_iteration": 0,

    # === Parallelism ===
    # Number of workers for collecting samples with. This only makes sense
    # to increase if your environment is particularly slow to sample, or if
    # you're using the Async or Ape-X optimizers.
    "num_workers": 1,
    # Prevent iterations from going lower than this time span
    "min_iter_time_s": 0,
})

Advantage Re-Weighted Imitation Learning (MARWIL)

[paper] [implementation] MARWIL is a hybrid imitation learning and policy gradient algorithm suitable for training on batched historical data. When the beta hyperparameter is set to zero, the MARWIL objective reduces to vanilla imitation learning. MARWIL requires the offline datasets API to be used.

Tuned examples: CartPole-v0

MARWIL-specific configs (see also common configs):

DEFAULT_CONFIG = with_common_config({
    # You should override this to point to an offline dataset (see agent.py).
    "input": "sampler",
    # Use importance sampling estimators for reward
    "input_evaluation": ["is", "wis"],

    # Scaling of advantages in exponential terms
    # When beta is 0, MARWIL is reduced to imitation learning
    "beta": 1.0,
    # Balancing value estimation loss and policy optimization loss
    "vf_coeff": 1.0,
    # Whether to calculate cumulative rewards
    "postprocess_inputs": True,
    # Whether to rollout "complete_episodes" or "truncate_episodes"
    "batch_mode": "complete_episodes",
    # Learning rate for adam optimizer
    "lr": 1e-4,
    # Number of timesteps collected for each SGD round
    "train_batch_size": 2000,
    # Number of steps max to keep in the batch replay buffer
    "replay_buffer_size": 100000,
    # Number of steps to read before learning starts
    "learning_starts": 0,
    # === Parallelism ===
    "num_workers": 0,
})

Single-Player Alpha Zero (contrib/AlphaZero)

[paper] [implementation] AlphaZero is an RL agent originally designed for two-player games. This version adapts it to handle single player games. The code can be used with the SyncSamplesOptimizer as well as with a modified version of the SyncReplayOptimizer, and it scales to any number of workers. It also implements the ranked rewards (R2) strategy to enable self-play even in the one-player setting. The code is mainly purposed to be used for combinatorial optimization.

Tuned examples: CartPole-v0

AlphaZero-specific configs (see also common configs):

DEFAULT_CONFIG = with_common_config({
    # Size of batches collected from each worker
    "sample_batch_size": 200,
    # Number of timesteps collected for each SGD round
    "train_batch_size": 4000,
    # Total SGD batch size across all devices for SGD
    "sgd_minibatch_size": 128,
    # Whether to shuffle sequences in the batch when training (recommended)
    "shuffle_sequences": True,
    # Number of SGD iterations in each outer loop
    "num_sgd_iter": 30,
    # IN case a buffer optimizer is used
    "learning_starts": 1000,
    "buffer_size": 10000,
    # Stepsize of SGD
    "lr": 5e-5,
    # Learning rate schedule
    "lr_schedule": None,
    # Share layers for value function. If you set this to True, it"s important
    # to tune vf_loss_coeff.
    "vf_share_layers": False,
    # Whether to rollout "complete_episodes" or "truncate_episodes"
    "batch_mode": "complete_episodes",
    # Which observation filter to apply to the observation
    "observation_filter": "NoFilter",
    # Uses the sync samples optimizer instead of the multi-gpu one. This does
    # not support minibatches.
    "simple_optimizer": True,

    # === MCTS ===
    "mcts_config": {
        "puct_coefficient": 1.0,
        "num_simulations": 30,
        "temperature": 1.5,
        "dirichlet_epsilon": 0.25,
        "dirichlet_noise": 0.03,
        "argmax_tree_policy": False,
        "add_dirichlet_noise": True,
    },

    # === Ranked Rewards ===
    # implement the ranked reward (r2) algorithm
    # from: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1807.01672.pdf
    "ranked_rewards": {
        "enable": True,
        "percentile": 75,
        "buffer_max_length": 1000,
        # add rewards obtained from random policy to
        # "warm start" the buffer
        "initialize_buffer": True,
        "num_init_rewards": 100,
    },

    # === Evaluation ===
    # Extra configuration that disables exploration.
    "evaluation_config": {
        "mcts_config": {
            "argmax_tree_policy": True,
            "add_dirichlet_noise": False,
        },
    },

    # === Callbacks ===
    "callbacks": {
        "on_episode_start": on_episode_start,
    }
})