Using Ray on a Large Cluster¶
Deploying Ray on a cluster requires a bit of manual work. The instructions here illustrate how to use parallel ssh commands to simplify the process of running commands and scripts on many machines simultaneously.
Booting up a cluster on EC2¶
Create an EC2 instance running Ray following instructions for installation on Ubuntu.
- Add any packages that you may need for running your application.
- Install the pssh package:
sudo apt-get install pssh.
Create an AMI with Ray installed and with whatever code and libraries you want on the cluster.
Use the EC2 console to launch additional instances using the AMI you created.
Configure the instance security groups so that they machines can all communicate with one another.
Deploying Ray on a Cluster¶
This section assumes that you have a cluster of machines running and that these nodes have network connectivity to one another. It also assumes that Ray is installed on each machine.
- All of the following commands are run from a machine designated as the head node.
- The head node will run Redis and the global scheduler.
- The head node has ssh access to all other nodes.
- All nodes are accessible via ssh keys
- Ray is checked out on each node at the location
Note: The commands below will probably need to be customized for your specific setup.
Connect to the head node¶
In order to initiate ssh commands from the cluster head node we suggest enabling
ssh agent forwarding. This will allow the session that you initiate with the
head node to connect to other nodes in the cluster to run scripts on them. You
can enable ssh forwarding by running the following command before connecting to
the head node (replacing
<ssh-key> with the path to the private key that you
would use when logging in to the nodes in the cluster).
Now log in to the head node with the following command, where
<head-node-public-ip> is the public IP address of the head node (just choose
one of the nodes to be the head node).
ssh -A ubuntu@<head-node-public-ip>
Build a list of node IP addresses¶
On the head node, populate a file
workers.txt with one IP address on each
line. Do not include the head node IP address in this file. These IP addresses
should typically be private network IP addresses, but any IP addresses which the
head node can use to ssh to worker nodes will work here. This should look
something like the following.
172.31.27.16 172.31.29.173 172.31.24.132 172.31.29.224
Confirm that you can ssh to all nodes¶
for host in $(cat workers.txt); do ssh $host uptime done
You may need to verify the host keys during this process. If so, run this step
again to verify that it worked. If you see a permission denied error, you
most likely forgot to run
ssh-add <ssh-key> before connecting to the head
Start Ray on the head node
On the head node, run the following:
./ray/scripts/start_ray.sh --head --redis-port=6379
Start Ray on the worker nodes
Create a file
start_worker.sh that contains something like the following:
# Make sure the SSH session has the correct version of Python on its path. # You will probably have to change the line below. export PATH=/home/ubuntu/anaconda3/bin/:$PATH ray/scripts/start_ray.sh --redis-address=<head-node-ip>:6379
This script, when run on the worker nodes, will start up Ray. You will need to
<head-node-ip> with the IP address that worker nodes will use to
connect to the head node (most likely a private IP address). In this
example we also export the path to the Python installation since our remote
commands will not be executing in a login shell.
Warning: You will probably need to manually export the correct path to
Python (you will need to change the first line of
start_worker.sh to find
the version of Python that Ray was built against). This is necessary because the
PATH environment variable used by
parallel-ssh can differ from the
PATH environment variable that gets set when you
ssh to the machine.
Warning: If the
parallel-ssh command below appears to hang or otherwise
head-node-ip may need to be a private IP address instead of a public
IP address (e.g., if you are using EC2). It’s also possible that you forgot to
ssh-add <ssh-key> or that you forgot the
-A flag when connecting to
the head node.
parallel-ssh to start up Ray on each worker node.
parallel-ssh -h workers.txt -P -I < start_worker.sh
Note that on some distributions the
parallel-ssh command may be called
Now you have started all of the Ray processes on each node. These include:
- Some worker processes on each machine.
- An object store on each machine.
- A local scheduler on each machine.
- Multiple Redis servers (on the head node).
- One global scheduler (on the head node).
To confirm that the Ray cluster setup is working, start up Python on one of the nodes in the cluster and enter the following commands to connect to the Ray cluster.
import ray ray.init(redis_address="<redis-address>")
<redis-address> should have the form
Now you can define remote functions and execute tasks. For example, to verify that the correct number of nodes have joined the cluster, you can run the following.
import time @ray.remote def f(): time.sleep(0.01) return ray.services.get_node_ip_address() # Get a list of the IP addresses of the nodes that have joined the cluster. set(ray.get([f.remote() for _ in range(1000)]))
Stop Ray on worker nodes
parallel-ssh -h workers.txt -P ray/scripts/stop_ray.sh
This command will execute the
stop_ray.sh script on each of the worker
Stop Ray on the head node
Ray remains under active development so you may at times want to upgrade the cluster to take advantage of improvements and fixes.
Create an upgrade script
On the head node, create a file called
upgrade.sh that contains the commands
necessary to upgrade Ray. It should look something like the following:
# Make sure the SSH session has the correct version of Python on its path. # You will probably have to change the line below. export PATH=/home/ubuntu/anaconda3/bin/:$PATH # Do pushd/popd to make sure we end up in the same directory. pushd . # Upgrade Ray. cd ray git remote set-url origin https://github.com/ray-project/ray git checkout master git pull cd python python setup.py install --user popd
This script executes a series of git commands to update the Ray source code, then builds and installs Ray.
Stop Ray on the cluster
Follow the instructions for Stopping Ray.
Run the upgrade script on the cluster
First run the upgrade script on the head node. This will upgrade the head node and help confirm that the upgrade script is working properly.
Next run the upgrade script on the worker nodes.
parallel-ssh -h workers.txt -P -t 0 -I < upgrade.sh
Note here that we use the
-t 0 option to set the timeout to infinite. You
may also want to use the
-p flag, which controls the degree of parallelism
used by parallel ssh.
It is probably a good idea to ssh to one of the other nodes and verify that the upgrade script ran as expected.
Sync Application Files to other nodes¶
If you are running an application that reads input files or uses python libraries then you may find it useful to copy a directory on the head node to the worker nodes.
You can do this using the
parallel-rsync -h workers.txt -r <workload-dir> /home/ubuntu/<workload-dir>
<workload-dir> is the directory you want to synchronize. Note that the
destination argument for this command must represent an absolute path on the
Problems with parallel-ssh¶
If any of the above commands fail, verify that the head node has SSH access to the other nodes by running
for host in $(cat workers.txt); do ssh $host uptime done
If you get a permission denied error, then make sure you have SSH’ed to the head node with agent forwarding enabled. This is done as follows.
ssh-add <ssh-key> ssh -A ubuntu@<head-node-public-ip>